This report analyses the key energy factors and trends shaping the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region’s energy landscape. The unsustainable increase in energy demand, driven by population and economic growth, is exerting considerable pressure on governments in the region to institute significant policy changes and demand-side measures as well as energy mix diversification (with a current energy mix that is heavily dependent on fossil fuels – mainly oil and natural gas). Should the increase in energy consumption rates persist in the future, many countries will see their export capacities (and eventually revenues) reduced as more energy is destined for domestic consumption. The US shale revolution is also having an impact on oil and gas prices. Low oil and gas prices as well as growing role of LNG in world gas markets have an impact on the MENA region’s export markets, including effects on the chemical and petrochemical industry. In order for the countries in the region to fulfill their economic growth aspirations and move quickly to a more sustainable energy system, efforts should be intensified to diversify their energy mixes, especially through developing and deploying renewable energy on a wider scale.